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Translations to Lesson 1
Please do not use until you have at least tried to translate
the exercises yourself.

Excerpt 1:
September 19, 1731 AD
10 Aśo Sud, 1788 VS
On this day, Pilajirao Gaekwad issued a command and exempted the Mobeds of Valsāḍ from the annual "quit-rent" of the Gaekwad Government in the amount of 21 rupees.
This original command exists in Navsari, in the posession of Desāi Peśtanji Kharśedji.

Excerpt 2:
December 12, 1865 AD
Because the great war concerning the eradication of slavery amongst the Northerners and Southerners was now finished, Śeṭh Ḍośābhāi Frāmji Kāmāji, who in 1862 had gone on a trip to America and who was very happy to observe the effort, cleverness, and improvement of the people there, wrote a letter of suggestion through his beneficent wisdom that the Northerners should forgive the Southerners and again renew their friendship on the 23 of July 1865, and by the agency of his agent, it got published on this day in a volume of the Evening Post. He also had sent 500 dollars to purchase a large portrait of the late President Lincoln.

Excerpt 3:
June 26, 1882 AD
Some Zoroastrians here under the leadership of Śeṭhs Navroji Nasarvānji Wāḍiā and Nāṇābhāi Dhanjibhāi Banāji, having each raised a subscription, had the rites of putting on the sudreh kusti performed for the children of non-Zoroastrian mothers' wombs living in Mazgaon in the Fort in the deceased Māṇekji Śeṭh Garden by Dastur Jāmāspji Minocheherji Jāmāspāsānā, his son, Ervad Firozji Dastur Jāmāspji, Dastur Jamshedji Sorābji Kukādāru, and Ervads Khursedji Minocheherji Kateli, Kāvasji Māṇekji Kātrak, Kharsedji Rustamji Māḍan, Rustamji Barzorji Rānji, Dādābhāi Frāmji Pāvri, and Hormazji Tehmulji Jāmāspāsānā. On this occasion, Dastur Pesotanji Behrāmji Sanjāṇā put out a handbill that these rites should have been performed in a more suitable manner, and until they were performed according to his belief, he entreated these sudreh-wearers to stay away from the Marhum Śeṭh Hormazji Wāḍi Ātashbehrām. As a result of this incident, just as there is much partisanship within the Parsi community, so too is there hatred. (Muṃbaī Samācār, 27 June 1882.)

Excerpt 4:
November 4th, 1840
During this week, in Bombay, a Muslim named Hāji Sayyed Hosayn had come to the house of the well-known Moghul (i.e., Persian) merchant Āghā Mohammad Rahim Shirāzi. He told the Parsis here: "I have travelled far and wide to many kingdoms, and my homeland is "Cathay-Khotan." It is ruled by Zoroastrians. The people do not worship fire; they are, by caste, monotheists, but they recognize the fire to be the qibla and therefore have built many fire temples. The name of the king is Gushtāsp Bahman, and his capital is in a city called Khānbāliq (Beijing). His kingdom is very large, and his sultanate is more majestic than I have ever seen even from the king of Iran. The Zoroastrians who live there are very industrious and the king possesses a large army. They have Towers of Silence on mountains, and they place corpses there as though it were a burial ground. When someone dies, they dress him in worn-out clothing. They do not eat meat. They collect poll-tax from whatever Muslims live in that kingdom. Their language is Zand-o-Pāzand, and besides that, they speak Turkish too." Many Parsis here considered that speech to be true; so that they could all question that Sayyed with their own mouths, on this day, some Zoroastrians assembled in Śeṭh Jamśedji Jijibhāi's Mahālakṣmi garden; along with them were present the Mogul, the Muslim, and several other well known Sāhebs. All of them asked many questions of the aforementioned Sayyed, and hearing what he had to say, they decided, “In order to verify what this gentleman has said, we should write a letter to that country's neighbors where someone from that country may have come and news about this matter might come out and get a response; we should also write a letter for this gentleman.

Excerpt 5:
October 8th, 1830
Roz 7 Māh 2 (Kadmī) 1200 Yazdegerdi.
Death: Mullā Firoz son of Mullā Kāus. Age: 72. The eldest son of Mullā Kāus Rustam Jalāl, and High Priest of the Bombay Kadmi Sect. At the age of 8, he had gone to Iran with his father in the year 1768 AD. Afterwards, having received a complete education in the Persian and Arabic languages there, he returned to Surat with his father in 1780 and came to Bombay. Having arrived here, in the year 1786, he wrote a description of his and his father's trip to Iran in Persian in book form named the Dīn-e [error for Dīn] Kherad-e Manzūme [For Persian دین خرد منظومه, Wisdom of the Religion Versified]. Afterwards, because Mullā Kāus went to Hyderabad in 1794, he attained the rank of High Priest of the Bombay Kadmi Sect. He spent his whole life writing books. He went to teach Bombay Governor Jonathan Duncan Persian at the monthly salary of 100 rupees, and with him, he began to work on the English translation of the book (entitled) Dasātīr; though three sections were completed, because that famous Governor died in the year 1811 AD, the rest of the work remained incomplete, so he had Mr. William Erskine complete it, and had it published in 1819 AD. After publishing this translation, many Englishmen quarreled violently, saying, “This book was produced through forgery!” At that time, he wrote long letters with much intelligence in the Bombay Courier in response to these quarrels. Since the time of Governor Duncan himself, just as Ferdosi's, the poet of the history of the kings of Iran's, Shāhnāma, had been written in Persian verse, corresponding to that, he had begun to create a book called the Georgenāma concerning the Englishmen's conquest and history in India. Having petitioned the government for support, on the first of October, 1828, the government awarded him a monthly salary of rupees 400 for his life's work. Because the work was not finished when he passed away, after his death, his nephew and heir to his position, Dastur Rustamji Kekobaji, printed it and put it out in three volumes.

From 1826-27, he was the chief leader of the Kadmis in a quarrel in Bombay relating to the intercalation and an instigator of the quarrel, and at that time, he incurred a great loss with regard to money. He was also made a leader (akābar) of the Parsi Panchayat at that time. Before his death, he gave over his valuable library, in which there were Persian, Arabic, Turkish, astronomical, as well as Zend, Pazend, Pahlavi, and English books, by his own writing to the control of the Trustees of the Kadmi Anjuman, saying “Our heirs should take no trouble regarding this library, and this library should be kept publicly in our name for all the knowledgeable people of the community to read.” According to this will, after his death, a list was prepared by Mobed Fardunji Marzubānji, and under the supervision of the Kadmi leaders, the “Mullā Firoz Library” was opened for all people to (come and) read. Likewise, in 1854, on the occasion of the death of the heir to his position, Dastur Rustamji Kekobādji, the Zoroastrians here founded a school as a memorial in his name called the "Mullā Fīroz Madresā" to teach the sons of Zoroastrians Zend, Pahlavi, and Persian.